How to get the Perfect Glowing Tan - Application Instructions & Tips
Application Instructions and Tips
EllieGlow Professional Self-Tanning Formulations are the ultimate sunless tanning delicacy – they are ‘tanning desserts’ for any skincare lover. Whipped up in our labs, these are the icing on the cake of tanning products. Only using the very finest ingredients, EllieGlow Professional Self-Tanning products embrace a caressing blend of oils and natural extracts reminiscent of the Heart of the Africa. The secret to perfect application is incorporating highly curated expensive ingredients to give a special boost to any Sunless Glow. Simply follow the Self-Tanning Instructions, then let your tan develop evenly and glowingly. The formulations quickly sink into skin. They all apply evenly with ease, and nourish your skin with exclusively curated Baobab, Marula, and Kalahari Melon Seed Oils. On this page we’ll discuss::
- Body Prep & Application Tips
- Face Prep & Application Tips
Exfoliation (Learn more) and creating a moisturizing environment are the key to achieving a natural, flawless-looking tan. We can’t stress (or repeat this enough!)
- Store in a cool, dry, and dark place: To keep the ingredients active longer and preserve the DHA in the products for extended periods of time, we always recommend storing self-tanning products in a cool, dry, and dark place. In fact, the perfect place to store EllieGlow Self-Tanning products is in your refrigerator! Tip: While you are exfoliating, allow your refrigerated EllieGlow Self-Tanning products to come up to room temperature. The reason for room temperature is for your comfort when applying. Although if you like to apply cold products, that’s perfectly fine!
- Set the stage: Remove jewelry and put your hair up out of the way.
- Exfoliate: To get the streak-less results, you should clean and smooth your skin as much as possible. Preparation is the key to an even and gorgeous application. The better you exfoliate and prep, the better your results. It’s that simple! Another benefit of exfoliation is your self tan will last much longer. Make sure your skin is exfoliated nicely and completely dry prior to applying self-tanning products. If you have the time, start exfoliating a few days before you apply the product with EllieGlow Rich Walnut Body Exfoliator, but it’s not necessary. Make sure you take particular care to exfoliate areas where skin has a tendency to build up – like around the ankles, elbows, and heels. Gently exfoliate in random fairly circular motion rather than in an ‘up and down’ or vertical manner. Self-tanning products will soak into exfoliated areas according to how you have exfoliated. Please keep this in mind and pay close attention to areas where dry skin or thicker skin occurs. Take knees, elbows, heels, tops of hands and feet into special consideration. We suggest using Rich Walnut Exfoliator on your body and EllieGlow Rooibos Exfoliating Cleanser for your face.
- Waxing & Shaving: Complete any waxing 24 hours before applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products. Do not shave, wax, pluck, or tweeze within 24 hours prior to using any self-tanning products. Your follicles and pores need time to heal. If you ignore this warning, your follicles may color a bit lighter or darker than the rest of your skin. This will ensure the hair follicles have settled back into place and there is no longer any inflammation. Shaving can be a great exfoliator, however make sure that you are careful to avoid scratches or nicks. We do recommend doing this well prior to applying self-tanning lotions, giving the skin time to bounce back and/or heal.
- Cleanse: After exfoliating, cleanse well and please make sure you thoroughly rinse off any shampoo and conditioner, or soap and cleansing products before hopping out of the shower or bath. Rinse off thoroughly to remove any exfoliating residue, shaving products, and/or dead skin cells on your face and hair too. Buffing with a towel over your entire skin’s surface helps with this. Be sure to cleanse off anything on your skin’s surface that might interfere with the self-tanning products application. This includes dirt, oil, wax, product residue, and anything else that might create a barrier between your skin and the product. In particular, avoid lotion immediately before tanning since it acts as a barrier on the skin.
- Toner: We always suggest using a toner to prep the skin. EllieGlow AHA Prepping Toner will make certain any residual oils, residue, exfoliating beads, or grim are removed. This is especially important for facial applications of any Self-Tanning products. An additional benefit is that toner will pH balance the skin which helps the DHA in the Self-Tanning formulation work optimally.
- Always Use a Self-Tanning Mitt: Shake the bottle or can very well before use. This helps the ingredients blend best. Tip: Apply in the shower stall where you can easily rinse off any spilled or sprayed product. Keep bathroom floors clean by standing on an old towel or newspaper while applying. If you spill or spray on anything, clean well immediately to avoid staining or discoloration. Please remember that all EllieGlow products contain coloration that can adhere to many materials and surfaces, especially those that are porous. To avoid spills, make certain the lid is on tight!
- By applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products with a EllieGlow Mitt, you can make sure you apply the tan all over your body so it looks more uniform. Self-tanning mitts are important for your sunless tanning results. The EllieGlow Mitt is made of microfiber and is extremely soft. It allows for a truly smooth application that leaves your tan streak-free and glowing.
- Most people shower, exfoliate and then start their self-tanning application with their legs first, work up the body, and finish with the face. Applying self-tanner without a mitt can actually be quite difficult to get an even application.
- An EllieGlow Self-Tanning Mitt will also prevent your hands from getting any unwanted staining.
- Apply it to the center of your mitt: Fold it in half to allow it to absorb into the fabric evenly. Do not soak the tip of the mitt so that you can use this to blend in areas where you want less product applied.
- Use the ColorGuide/Roadmap: Most EllieGlow Self-Tanning products are formulated with a ColorGuide/Roadmap so that you can see precisely where you applied and where you missed. The caramelizing guide also gets darker the more product you apply, so this is a great help!
- Thinning the concentration is easy: Another useful tip is that if you inadvertently apply too much it one area, you can add some EllieGlow Savannah Cocoa Body Butter or lotion to thin this down. Don’t do this as a habit. We are letting you know just in case you put on too much and need to reduce the amount on your skin before it develops. Also, it you notice any darker areas where you don’t want them, add a little cream and rub it to the color you desire. The great thing about the ColorGuide/Roadmap is the application guidance it provides for fabulous results every time.
- Go light to start: It’s best to always repeat this as you apply: “Go lighter!” EllieGlow Self-tanning products are HIGHLY CONCENTRATED – probably much more so than any other tanners you’ve used. It is far easier to darken, and just about impossible to lighten! EllieGlow Self-Tanning products are layering friendly. In fact, we recommend adding color every day until you get you perfect skin tone. How? Start with applying your favorite product either EllieGlow MicroMist Bronzer Spray, Sunset Beach Mousse or any Rapid Mousse, then let your base color develop. In the next day or two, reapply the same product or use the Tan Extenders to build and layer your tan. When you are building your tan, there’s absolutely no need to exfoliate your body again. However, we do recommend that you exfoliate and ‘reset’ your Self-Tan ever so often. Our recommendation is to do a full-body exfoliation at least every 7-10 days. The reason is simple, DHA reacts with dead skin cells. To refreshen and rejuvenate your skin (and your Self-Tan) you need to exfoliate. If you don’t, and you are layering, you’ll build tan in some areas more than others as time goes along. Exfoliation avoids this. The goal is to keep that glowing sun-kissed fresh look! If you like the color and want to maintain it and want daily anti-aging moisturizing for your body, we highly recommend using our world class EllieGlow Glistening Tan Extender or Natural Tan Extender to extend your tan and rejuvenate your skin. It’s easy to keep that perfect summer EllieGlow all year round!
Not using enough EllieGlow Self-Tanning product can cause a streaky tan. Luckily, by using an EllieGlow Mitt, this should help regulate how much product you need for your skin. You should use enough so that the EllieGlow Self-Tanning product can easily glide over your skin. If you feel any rubbing or pulling, you’re more than likely causing a streak and you should immediately add more to your mitt. This is where a caramelizing Color Guide or Roadmap is most effective. Most EllieGlow Self-Tanning products have a roadmap by design. By following the Color Guide, you can easily see where you’ve applied Self-Tanning product and how much. The coloration in the Color Guide/Roadmap steers your application to help provide stellar results.
Self-Tanning Tips: Areas of Note:
- Back and hard to reach areas: If you don’t have a tanning buddy, make your own mitt stick. Attaching a mitt to a shower brush makes back application better and also makes it easier for applying to hard-to-reach areas. Apply the tanning product to your mitt stick making sure that the Self-Tanning product has soaked into the mitt. Apply to harder-to-reach areas by looking in a mirror. Because EllieGlow Self-Tanning products have a bronze base, you can easily see where you have to apply product.
- Feet and hands: Use a makeup brush or sponge or craft sponge (with a handle) to blend product on your hands and feet. Feather and blend slowly and lightly. Imagine what the final result will be and use your Color Guide/Roadmap to steer you. Less is more! Take particular care to flex your knuckles to make sure you get product into these areas. After applying the tanning product, lightly blend out the product with a makeup brush or small sponge brush (like the kind you get at the craft or hardware store). Think about how the sun might kiss these areas (or hardly reach them! Use this as a guideline in how much product you should be applying. Blending in these areas (between your fingers, toes, and on your knees, etc.) is important for a natural look. Be sure to apply to the creases and wrinkle areas and blend these too. To apply tanning product in your knuckle creases, bend your fingers so your hand looks like a claw. We suggest making a fist and scrunching your toes; and flexing your hands and feet as you apply, and apply lightly. Blend, blend, blend – going more darker where the sun would tan you and lighter(or not all) where the sun would never tan. Try to avoid applying too much product where it might settle into creases. These areas might absorb too much product by trapping it. These are areas like the cuticle, knuckles and between toes and fingers. Again, blend, blend, blend!
- Areas where dead skin cells are thicker: Elbows, heels, knees and other thicker skinned areas need special attention. When applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products, try to use very little on these areas because any DHA will make these a bit darker than areas with a thinner skin surface. These areas tend naturally to be a bit drier than other areas of the skin too. As such, they might absorb more pigment than other areas of the body, causing unevenness as the self-tanning product develops. After showering and exfoliating, many people (especially if you have dry skin) apply lotion to hands from wrist to fingertips, on the backs of heels, and on elbows and knees. WARNING: Make sure all lotion has COMPLETELY DRIED prior to applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products.
- Use less: If you are doing two or three passes of your mitt for your entire body, do less on these areas.
- Skip over: Avoid your elbows and ankles when applying tanning lotion to your arms and legs. Because the skin on these areas will soak up more of the product, skip them during the first pass. Then, go back and brush over them lightly with remnants of the tanner left on the mitt, blending the tanner well to prevent the color from looking too concentrated.
- Hands and palms, soles and toes: Exfoliate the palms of your hands with an EllieGlow Exfoliator after you’ve finished applying your self-tanner. Gently rub your hands together removing any excess EllieGlow Self-Tanning products. Remember, just because you’ve used a mitt, it doesn’t stop every bit of product from getting on your hands. The palms in particular tend to soak up self-tanning DHAs and this will cause your palms and hands to develop too much. In fact, if you look at your hands, they typically don’t tan at all! That’s a natural look. The exfoliator will help remove any excess. Be sure to be thorough and careful using this. One thing to note: Water and self-tanning products aren’t good! Rinse ONLY the area you have exfoliated. Be careful not to remove self-tanning product from areas where you want it to stay applied. Please avoid getting any water on these areas. It is best to use EllieGlow Freshener and avoid water completely. By using the Freshener to remove the Exfoliator, you’ll have more control and better results. After exfoliating your palms and between your fingers and cuticles (all areas where self-tanning products might collect), you are ready to finish your body application. We highly recommend that you apply EllieGlow Self-Tanning products to your hands last. Follow the suggestions for hands and blend for the most natural effect.
- Nails and Cuticles: Use a cotton swab with Freshener or make-up wipe to remove the product from your nails and cuticles. Gently rub each nail (fingers and toes) and cuticle. After you’ve applied the self-tanner carefully and evenly all over your hands, go back and remove the product from your nails and cuticles. One by one, gently rub each fingernail and toenail with a wipe or cotton swab until the product is gone to prevent overprocessing and/or stains.
- Contouring and shading: You can enhance your natural features and downplay others by contouring. If you’re someone who loves a good contour, concentrate the tanning lotion in certain areas on your neck, shoulders, cleavage, abs, legs, derriere, and arms for a naturally contoured effect. Learn how on our videos. Blending is key. LEARN MORE
- Avoid runs and sweat streaks: Do not apply when you are hot and/or sweating. This will obviously result in uneven looking results. Always apply in a cool, dry area to keep yourself from perspiring. However, you’ll want to leave the steamy bathroom before the application process. Here’s why: Humidity, water, and sweat can break down the self-tanner, creating a streaky mess, so move cool, dry place instead.
- Drying is really important! Please allow 15-20+ minutes for your skin to absorb all the nutrients, vitamins, tanning ingredients, hydrating agents, and other enriching oils. The general rule of thumb is this: The longer you dry and don’t touch anything with the areas you’ve applied an EllieGlow Self-Tanning product to, the better looking and richer, the more even your results will be.
- Layering products: Do not apply additional products for at least 2 (ideally 4) hours. Certain ingredients impact the efficacy of DHA and our EllieGlow Self-Tanning ingredients.
- Tan Development: Please give all EllieGlow Self-Tanning products at least 2 to 4 hours to develop.
- Accelerate: You can accelerate the drying process with a hairdryer or a fan. We highly recommend this because you can can dressed quicker and get on your way faster! But please allow at least 15-20 minutes, even if you blow dry.
- Dry: A good rule of thumb for dressing is 20 minutes. Make sure you use commonsense: If you are using a Color Guide or caramel ized Self-Tanning product, choose your clothing wisely. We suggest comfy and darker colored more loosely fitted clothing.
- Avoid water!: EllieGlow recommends that clients do not get wet after their spray or self-tan. Please use your commonsense. No showering, bathing, or swimming. Be careful if you wash hands or sanitize. This will remove the self-tanning product too soon. Remember: Sweat is water, too! No working out for at least 8 hours. Depending on the Self-Tanning product, you will begin to develop underlying color according to the instructions on the Self-Tanning product’s label. For products with a Color Guide/Roadmap you will get some instant color also dependent on the product description. Please read the instructions for each product for this information.
- Do not dilute: This is commonsense, but it bears discussing. If you put anything over your Self-Tanning product, you dilute it. So please don’t put on anything including perfumes, make-up, deodorant, perfumes, lotions, etc. over your Self-Tanning products until they have fully developed.
- Moisturize: Apply the day after to help extend the life of your tan. Pat dry with your towel after a shower or bath, and avoid scrubbing or rubbing to help keep your EllieGlow looking its very best for the longest time possible. To prolong and maintain your tan, moisturize with EllieGlow products daily and as needed. In addition, re-apply EllieGlow Bronze Natural or Glistening Tan Extender every couple of days to maintain your tan. Lightly exfoliate every 5 – 7 days, and reapply EllieGlow Micro-Spray and/or Self-Tanning Mousse as desired for the depth of tan you love.
- Staining: EllieGlow Bronzing products contain coloration agents. While the fragrance-free formula won’t rub off on your clothes once it is dry, make sure it dries completely and has ‘set’ before getting dressed. This ‘setting’ usually takes 30 – 60 minutes in a non-humid environment. If you want to dry and ‘set’ the product quicker, use your hairdryer to speed this up.
- Additionally, if you are perspiring prior to the product ‘setting’ you could inadvertently transfer product to your clothing or to things you come into contact with.
- Wearing dark clothing and avoiding over-applying the product reduces the likelihood of ruining clothing with self-tanning products in general. If you are using a product with a bronzer, you should ALWAYS wait at least 30 minutes before getting dressed.
- If you apply EllieGlow Self-Tanning products before going to bed, this will certainly give the formula plenty of time to develop and ensures you’ll wake up with a healthy glow. However you have to make sure the product is completely dry and has ‘set’ before putting on PJs and hopping into bed. Because all self-tanners have the potential to rub off, swap out your white sheets with darker colored ones when tanning overnight.
- While most formulas wash out of fabrics, apply the self-tanner and allow it to dry thoroughly, according to the product’s directions, before putting on any clothing.
- For product spills: If you have gotten product on things that you shouldn’t have, wash immediately. Do not apply to hair.
- Missed areas: If you have streaks or dark spots they can be buffed away with a louffah, baking soda paste, or a wash cloth. If you have spots you missed, apply a small amount of tanner to those areas. Make sure you ‘feather and blend’ to avoid streakiness.
- Apply sunscreen and sun protection: None of the EllieGlow Self-Tanning products have any sun protection at all. We recommend that you always protect yourself from harmful UV light, no matter the source.
Exfoliation and creating a moisturizing environment is the key to achieving a natural, flawless-looking tan on your face. Applying self-tan to your face can be a little daunting but is actually very easy. It’s similar to applying makeup! Use an EllieGlow Self-Tanner that’s made specifically for your face for best results. Always do a skin patch test prior to application for any area of your body, especially your face. Learn exactly how to do it from our videos.
Waxing & Shaving Prior to Sunless Tanning – Caution:
- Wait 24 hours after waxing: Complete any waxing 24 hours before applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products. This will ensure the hair follicles have settled back into place and there is no longer inflammation.
- Wait at least 2 hours after shaving: Do not shave your face (or any other parts of your body) immediately prior to applying self-tanning products. Wait at least 2 hours and/or until any irritation subsides.
- Take off your makeup: Always be sure to remove your makeup first with EllieGlow Charcoal Cleanser and ideally exfoliate with EllieGlow Rooibos Exfoliating Cleanser prior to applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning Drops. We suggest that you use EllieGlow AHA Prepping Toner to remove any oils and residue prior to application. The Glowing Complexion Bundle is excellent all round value because it provides everything you need for a beautiful Sunless Facial Tan. Or you can add the Self-Tanning Drops to the My Face Deserves the Best Bundle or My Face & Body Deserve the Best Bundle too. Either way, you’ll love the results!
- Exfoliate: Make sure you take particular care to not to exfoliate too deeply. Your facial skin is delicate. Be gentle. Make sure to exfoliate areas where skin has a lesser tendency to exfoliate naturally – like the area outside the nostrils, below the cheekbones toward the side of your face where the face and hairline meet, and around the jaw line. When applying EllieGlow Self-Tanning products, try to use less product on these areas because any DHA will make these a bit darker than areas with thinner skin surface.
- If you have the time, start initial exfoliation a few days before you apply the self-tanning product, but it’s not necessary.
- Cleanse: After exfoliation, prepare the face by cleaning any residue off using EllieGlow Rooibos Exfoliating Cleanser. In particular, avoid lotion immediately before tanning since it acts as a barrier on the skin.
- pH Balance: THIS IS IMPORTANT! pH balance your entire face with Ellie Glow AHA Prepping Toner. DHA reacts with different pH levels so you must correct these to achieve an even self-tanning tone.
- Use a Makeup Sponge: Apply the EllieGlow Self-Tanning product of your choice with a makeup sponge, making sure to EVENLY APPLY the product.
- EllieGlow Tanning Drops do not have a Color Guide/Roadmap by design, so we suggest that you blend the Tanning Drops with your favorite serum. We suggest serums rather than creams or lotions because serums are designed to dry quickly. This is optimal for Tanning Drops. Learn about Serum/Tanning Bundles.
- Because of the concentration of DHA (30%) in EllieGlow Tanning Drops, your face and neck will tend to darken fairly easily so please apply EllieGlow Tanning Drops sparingly but evenly to this region. When you first start using the Tanning Drops, you should remember that they are HIGHLY CONCENTRATED. We suggest using a small amount of drops at first to determine what level of coloration you desire. If you use a lot of drops, your Self-Tan will develop significantly darker than your base skin tone.
- When applying, be sure to get tanner all the way up to your (not in) hairline to ensure seamless color. We highly recommend applying a light layer of moisturizer around the hair line to ensure a natural finish. This will also make sure you blend into the hairline, not applying to the hair, much like you would if you were putting on makeup.
- Harsh self-tanning ‘lines’ are not attractive. To avoid these, moisturize the areas where you want ‘less tan’. Blend by feathering and doing an ‘ombre’ effect – lightening toward the hairline and jaw line and other areas that are naturally lighter on you face because the sun doesn’t kiss them as much.
- Remember areas you might forget like your ears and behind your ears, too.
- After application, do not touch your face until the product dries thoroughly.
- Contouring and shading: You can enhance your natural features and downplay others by contouring.If you’re someone who loves a good contour, concentrate the tanning product in certain areas on your face, neck, shoulders, and cleavage. Using makeup brushes tends to work best. Why contour? It looks more natural than a uniform application and the added benefit is that you can toss your regular makeup – you won’t need it! The basic principle: Begin with a very thin layer of lighter EllieGlow Self-Tanning product over your entire face. Contour with a slightly darker shade, concentrating your efforts under your jaw line, right below your cheekbones, and on the sides of your forehead. You can also sculpt your nose too! With a little practice, you’ll have a natural looking sun-kissed look in short order! Learn how to contour from our videos. Blending is key. Learn MORE
- Layering products: Do not apply additional products for at least 2 (ideally 4) hours. Certain ingredients impact the efficacy of DHA and our EllieGlow Self-Tanning products.
- Tan Development: Please give all EllieGlow Self-Tanning products at least 2 to 4 hours to develop fully before washing any of it off. Look at the product for guidance becasue each product’s development time is different.
- Avoid runs and sweat streaks: Do not apply when you are hot and/or sweating. This will obviously result in an uneven application. If this occurred with a product and you now want to correct this with EllieGlow Self-Tanning products, please look at some tips for How to Remove Self-Tanning Products first. Learn More (BELOW)
- Use enough product: Apply to your skin to you cover the entire face with similar level and layer of product. You can ‘feather’ the amount you use by applying less towards the hairline. This will achieve a more natural looking appearance.
- Staining: EllieGlow Bronzing agents contain coloration agents. While the fragrance-free formula won’t rub off on your clothes once it is dry, make sure it dries completely before getting dressed. This is typically 20 – 30 minutes on most types of skin. Here’s a great tip: You can actually use your hairdryer! This has the added benefit of accelerating the development process. Use commonsense for product spills: If you have gotten product on things that you shouldn’t have, wash immediately. Do not apply to hair.
EllieGlow to the rescue! If you end up with an uneven tan, streaks, or a color you don’t like and it needs correction, the best way to remove any kind of self-tanner is to apply baby oil to the area and leave it on for 10 minutes. Then, use a very gentle exfoliating body scrub like Rich Walnut Body Exfoliator. This specially designed exfoliator is amazing product that preps the skin beautifully. If you are stuck for an exfoliator (and we don’t recommend this every time!) You can make a workable exfoliating paste from conditioner and baking soda. Use equal measures of each. Put this conditioner/baking soda paste on a soft washcloth, and gently exfoliate the dead skin cells and old color from your skin. Make sure you are GENTLE! After you’ve managed to remove most of the color, finish removing all traces by buffing the skin with a warm, damp wash cloth or exfoliating mitt. Follow the EllieGlow Self-Tanning products instructions to the letter. Luckily, EllieGlow Rich Walnut Body Exfoliator will even out the worst or cheapest self-tanning mistakes! However, for color correction, it is especially important to thoroughly prep your skin properly prior to application of EllieGlow. Please remember that using the EllieGlow Micro-Spray or Mousse then waiting a day to apply an additional tanning application of EllieGlow Bronze Tan Extender will yield the best results to color correct. Most definitely, we then recommend tossing that sub-par product in the trash!
Operator Errors: How to ‘smooth out’ an uneven self-tanning application
User error might be the cause of an uneven application. So now you need to color correct. If you used EllieGlow Self-Tanning products this correction can be very easy. If it’s a small color correction, simply apply the same product to the areas you missed. Activate with some heat from a hairdryer. Let your EllieGlow Self-Tan develop for 2 – 4 hours. Then apply your favorite EllieGlow Bronze Tan Extender to even out your color. Be sure to apply it liberally all over. By applying our Bronze Tan Extender everywhere you desire an even tanned look, you’ll smooth out both applications (the first and second). Don’t forget that EllieGlow Self-Tanning products can be activated with some heat to accelerate the color correction! A couple of sweeps over the entire area with your hairdryer should work wonders!
As you get older (beginning from very young), your skin naturally ages. It starts to sag, loses its elasticity, and has much less volume and ‘plumpness’. Your underlying dermis produces less collagen and elastin. This is where enzymes and peptides come in.
An exfoliator removes dead skin cells that clog pores and make skin dull, that’s a fact. But using one prior to self-tanning is a must! The smoother your skin, the more even the skin cells on your skin’d surface, the better the application. Even more interesting? Tans of any kind last longer and are less ‘spotty’ when they fade if all the skin is newer. Makes perfect sense! So make sure you exfoliate! An added benefit: Frequent use of an exfoliator promotes circulation and maintains a younger skin texture. Tanned skin looks more youthful – so double whammy! Who doesn’t love that! EllieGlow Rich Walnut Body Exfoliator is perfect for getting your skin beautifully prepared for tanning applications.